FALTER Has the Human Game Begun to Play Itself Out? By Bill McKibben
“Falter,” the environmentalist Bill McKibben’s latest book about threats to the planet, combines fear of bad outcomes with hope for good outcomes. His opening pages set the stage. “This volume is bleak,” he writes, elaborating a few paragraphs later: “I think we’re uniquely ill prepared to cope with the emerging challenges. So far, we’re not coping with them. Still, there is one sense in which I am less grim than in my younger days. This book ends with the conviction that resistance to these dangers is at least possible.”
McKibben’s worst fear is summarized in his subtitle: “Has the Human Game Begun to Play Itself Out?” In the first half of the book, he explains the present dangers to civilization, which include the risk of nuclear war and multiple hazards associated with climate change: increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide, threats to food production, rising sea levels, and ocean warming and acidification. While these dangers have been widely discussed, McKibben provides a fresh perspective with surprising examples and an engaging writing style. What could be more familiar, cheap and simple than asphalt roof tiles? But McKibben explains how their manufacture and distribution depend on multiple big systems — undersea and desert oil drilling, limestone and sand mining, fiberglass fabrication, pipelines, refineries, rail lines, truck routes, building supply stores, etc. — all now at increasing risk because of their scale, complexity and susceptibility to disruption.
The middle part of the book discusses forces opposing solutions to the problems laid out in the first part — motivated variously by self-interest, grim realities, power, ideals and views about the proper role of government. These forces include Exxon, poverty, inequality, Ayn Rand, the Koch brothers, other very rich Americans, President Trump and Silicon Valley.
[ This book was one of our most anticipated titles of April. See the full list.]
Some people hope that world problems will be solved by advanced new technologies, especially artificial intelligence and genetic engineering, along with devices geared to expanding our life spans and allowing us to colonize space. Considering each such technology in turn, McKibben explains his skepticism about its hoped-for benefits, and his concerns about potential undesirable side effects.
Finally, in the book’s last section, McKibben offers his reasons for hope. Foremost among these are solar panels, which are making cheap renewable energy available around the world, and nonviolent movements, whose successful practitioners against entrenched, well-armed oppositions have included Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Earth Day demonstrators and McKibben’s own group, 350.org.
I share McKibben’s views about these environmental problems. The practical question we face has to do with tactics: How do we strike a balance between fear and hope, and adjust our tactics to best reach a diverse target audience?
As Yogi Berra noted, it’s tough to make predictions, especially about the future. It depends not just on measurable present trends but also on unforeseeable decisions. Five years ago, I would never have predicted the public’s now-widespread recognition of climate change and its human causes (a view not yet shared by enough politicians).
McKibben’s book is much more about grounds for fear, which take up some 18 chapters, than about grounds for hope, which take up five. Fear will motivate some people who are currently undecided, and increase the motivation of others already convinced. But in my experience most people need a strong dose of hope to be spurred to action. Why waste effort on a hopeless cause? One group that has learned this lesson is the cancer lobby, which succeeds at raising funds for research by stressing cures that may be just around the corner more than the grim statistics of the disease’s ongoing toll.
In fact, there are reasons for hope besides those McKibben discusses. One is the change in policies of some powerful multinational corporations. I can already hear the horrified screams of many of my environmentalist friends as I say this. However, I’ve been on the boards of two of the most effective international environmental organizations, World Wildlife Fund and Conservation International, both of which are heavily involved with big, powerful corporations. I acknowledge that those corporations do some very bad things. But they also do some very good things on a large scale that their power makes them uniquely capable of doing. For example, Walmart has quietly been making efforts to manage its supply chain, its wastes and its truck fleet sustainably — partly, but only partly, because it discovered that it can save money by doing so.B:
东方心经马报图今日【最】【终】，【李】【柏】【与】【花】【无】【觅】【决】【定】【同】【时】【拔】【刀】【杀】【了】【那】【火】【狮】【子】【形】【怪】【兽】。 “【困】【灵】【咒】【印】【之】【八】【十】，【离】【木】【阵】，【转】！” “【你】【叫】【什】【么】【名】【字】?” “【江】【月】！” “【你】【不】【用】【害】【怕】，【我】【是】【神】【龙】【国】【王】【廷】【卫】【队】【的】【斩】【妖】【师】。【这】【是】【血】【色】【果】【实】，【你】【吃】【了】【它】，【便】【能】【短】【时】【间】【内】【获】【得】【妖】【灵】【力】，【不】【但】【能】【够】【恢】【复】【伤】【口】。【再】【用】【你】【手】【中】【契】【约】【书】，【封】【印】【妖】【灵】，【否】【则】【只】【要】【它】【暴】
【小】【跟】【班】【出】【现】【后】，【灭】【世】【和】【凶】【兽】【也】【出】【现】【了】，【灭】【世】【讥】【讽】【的】【看】【着】【小】【跟】【班】，【嗅】【着】【他】【身】【上】【甜】【的】【让】【人】【恶】【心】【的】【味】【道】，【嘲】【讽】： “【大】【人】【又】【没】【做】【错】，【为】【什】【么】【要】【收】【手】？” 【错】【的】【是】【顽】【固】【的】【世】【人】，【他】【们】【畏】【惧】【死】【亡】，【胆】【小】【却】【又】【恶】【毒】，【这】【样】【肮】【脏】【的】【存】【在】，【本】【来】【就】【是】【应】【该】【毁】【灭】【的】。 “【大】【人】，【你】【醒】【醒】【吧】，【难】【道】【你】【记】【忆】【里】【的】【人】【类】，【真】【的】【就】【那】【么】【恶】【毒】【吗】？
“【如】【今】【已】【经】【是】【秋】【天】【了】，【很】【快】【就】【会】【入】【冬】。【到】【时】【候】，【用】【砖】【砌】【成】【的】【房】【屋】，【才】【有】【更】【好】【的】【保】【暖】【效】【果】。【你】【们】【要】【不】【要】【买】【一】【些】【回】【去】【用】【呢】？” 【小】【仙】【女】【随】【口】【就】【推】【销】【起】【来】，【完】【全】【没】【有】【丝】【毫】【不】【自】【然】。 “【咳】【咳】……【小】【仙】【女】【女】【士】，【砖】【房】【的】【保】【暖】【当】【然】【比】【泥】【糊】【的】【墙】【好】，【但】【是】……”【达】【利】【清】【了】【清】【喉】【咙】，【回】【答】【道】：“……【但】【是】，【现】【阶】【段】，【恐】【怕】【还】【用】【不】【上】【烧】
”【天】【心】【莲】，【似】【莲】【非】【莲】，【生】【长】【在】【极】【寒】【之】【域】，【乃】【草】【本】【植】【物】，【性】【寒】，【可】【治】【愈】【火】【毒】，【与】【九】【幽】【草】【搭】【配】，【对】【火】【系】【魔】【兽】【攻】【击】【产】【生】【的】【伤】【口】【有】【奇】【效】。【这】【味】【药】【材】【是】【在】《【北】【域】【奇】【草】》【中】【记】【载】【的】。【无】【根】【草】，【并】【非】【无】【根】，【而】【是】【无】【土】，【常】【年】【寄】【生】【在】【幽】【冥】【树】【的】【顶】【端】，【一】【旦】【幽】【冥】【树】【死】【亡】，【其】【根】【会】【快】【速】【腐】【烂】，【呈】【现】【无】【根】【的】【状】【态】，【毒】【性】【随】【着】【去】【除】，【但】【是】【这】【种】【状】【态】【只】东方心经马报图今日【月】【色】【渐】【渐】【的】【暗】【沉】【起】【来】，【厢】【房】【早】【已】【没】【有】【了】【声】【音】，【一】【行】【人】【急】【速】【匆】【匆】【的】【归】【来】，【脸】【上】【挂】【着】【几】【许】【严】【肃】【之】【意】，【显】【然】【没】【有】【追】【回】【伏】【魔】【琴】。 【文】【冲】【就】【这】【般】【在】【廊】【道】【的】【一】【角】【安】【静】【的】【睡】【着】【了】，【身】【上】【的】【血】【迹】【早】【已】【晾】【干】，【整】【片】【月】【琴】【宫】【都】【陷】【入】【一】【片】【荒】【乱】【之】【中】，【一】【片】【片】【打】【斗】【凌】【乱】【的】【痕】【迹】，【让】【整】【个】【殿】【宇】【显】【得】【几】【分】【落】【寞】。 【月】【琴】【宫】【众】【人】【回】【来】【之】【后】，【带】【着】【那】【散】【落】
【林】【炎】【跳】【海】【前】【再】【次】【联】【系】【上】【金】【蛇】，“【小】【金】。” “【大】【哥】。” “【鸠】【行】【智】【已】【经】【来】【到】【火】【氏】【器】【庐】，【这】【次】【相】【见】，【我】【恐】【怕】【很】【难】【幸】【免】，【你】【替】【我】【照】【顾】【好】【家】【人】，【没】【有】【能】【力】【自】【保】【前】，【千】【万】【不】【要】【离】【开】【学】【院】。” “【大】【哥】……”【金】【蛇】【急】【得】【不】【知】【道】【该】【如】【何】【表】【达】。 “【小】【金】，【你】【听】【我】【的】：【不】【要】【告】【诉】【他】【们】【真】【相】！【梅】【院】【长】【不】【是】【说】【我】【只】【是】【有】【危】【险】，【又】【没】【说】
【余】【吉】【青】：“……” 【这】【位】【是】【个】【小】【祖】【宗】，【他】【惹】【不】【起】，【溜】【了】【溜】【了】。 【没】【了】【经】【纪】【人】【的】【督】【促】，【乔】【舒】【蔓】【的】【小】【日】【子】【过】【得】【十】【分】【的】【舒】【畅】，【就】【连】【体】【重】【都】【上】【浮】【了】【两】【三】【公】【斤】，【看】【着】【自】【家】【艺】【人】【的】【堕】【落】，【余】【吉】【青】【看】【在】【眼】【里】，【急】【在】【心】【头】。 【再】【次】【逮】【住】【乔】【舒】【蔓】【吃】【薯】【片】，【喝】【可】【乐】【的】【时】【候】，【余】【吉】【青】【觉】【得】【不】【能】【不】【说】【了】，【在】【乔】【舒】【蔓】【身】【边】【晃】【悠】【了】【一】【圈】，【发】【现】【她】【直】
【邻】【近】【十】【月】【底】，【樱】【花】【庄】【的】【客】【厅】【里】，【已】【经】【用】【上】【了】【被】【炉】。 【这】【对】【于】【村】【上】【悠】【来】【说】，【算】【不】【得】【什】【么】【惊】【讶】【的】【事】。 【前】【世】，【他】【有】【一】【个】【异】【性】【朋】【友】，【在】【十】【月】【初】【洗】【澡】【的】【时】【候】，【就】【开】【始】【使】【用】【浴】【霸】【了】。 【女】【人】【真】【的】【是】【一】【种】【很】【复】【杂】【的】【生】【物】，【再】【奇】【怪】【的】【事】【发】【生】【在】【她】【们】【身】【上】，【也】【不】【需】【要】【太】【过】【于】【惊】【讶】。 【村】【上】【悠】【坐】【在】【自】【己】【的】【老】【位】【置】，【下】【半】【身】【缩】【在】【被】【炉】【里】